References and additional information


  • van Arkel, Thomas, & Nynke Tromp.

    Bouwen Aan Synergetische Samenwerkingen: Een Onderzoek Naar Werken over Grenzen in Complexe Veiligheidsvraagstukken. Delft: Delft University of Technology, 2023,

  • Findeli, Alain.

    “Searching for Design Research Questions: Some Conceptual Clarifications”. In Questions, Hypotheses & Conjectures: Discussions on Projects, edited by Rosan Chow, Wolfgang, Gesche Joost. Bloomington, Indiana: iUniverse, 2010, 286–303.

  • Findeli, Alain.

    “The Metamorphosis of the Designer: A Prerequisite to Social Transformation By Design”. In Un/Certain Futures. Die Rolle Des Designs in Gesellschaftlichen Transformationsprozessen. Transcript, 2018, 104–113.

  • Schaminée, André.

    Designing with and within Public Organizations: Building Bridges Between Public Sector Innovators and Designers. BIS Publishers, 2019.

  • Schulz, Martin , Petra Ophoff, Marije Huiting, Hans Vermaak, Jorren Scherpenisse, Martijn van der Steen, and Mark van Twist.

    Experimenteren En Opschalen I Hoe Ministeries Zoeken Naar Oplossingen Voor Maatschappelijke Opgaven. Nederland: Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur, 2020,


  • 01

    van Arkel & Tromp, Bouwen Aan Synergetische Samenwerkingen.

  • 02

    Findeli, “Searching for Design Research Questions”, 286–303.

  • 03

    Findeli, “The Metamorphosis of the Designer”, 104–113.

  • 04

    Schaminée, Designing with and within Public Organizations.

  • 05

    Schulz et. al., Experimenteren En Opschalen.


All images are retrieved from online sources.

Additional information

What If Lab process design

What if Lab aims to facilitate longlasting partnerships between design studios and organisations.

Societal challenges require new answers and a different way of thinking. That is where designers come in. At What if Lab, we bring together design studios and organisations to combine the expertise, networks and resources needed to achieve change. Designers get the chance to work on challenging issues, organisations get new perspectives on opportunities for the future. Together, we develop the society of tomorrow.

B Corp Certification certification

When discussing the organisational vision of social design, Studio Greenberry shared its process of getting the B Corp Certification. This is a global designation that a business is meeting high standards of verified performance, accountability, and transparency on factors from employee benefits and charitable giving to supply chain practices and input materials. Such Certification can help design studios and agencies articulate their internal way of working for a more just society. It is a valuable tool for reorganising a company around social and environmental impact.

Survey questions

This survey will function as an important part of the research data, complementary to the interviews we have conducted. There are no right or wrong answers, as we are interested in exploring the diversity of the organisational systems through which social design projects are formed. All details will remain anonymous unless indicated otherwise.

Your Own Organization

  • 1.1

    Your name and the name of your company/organization

  • 1.2

    What is the business structure of your organization?
    Mark only one oval.

    • Sole proprietorship (“freelance”)

    • Foundation

    • General partnership

    • Private limited company

    • Association

    • Other, explain below

  • 1.3

    Explain and elaborate your answer above, why have you chosen this structure?

  • 1.4

    What is the size of your business/organisation?, based on MKB definitions
    Mark only one oval.

    • 1 employee

    • Micro, less than 10

    • Small, less than 50

    • Middle size, less than 250

    • Other, explain below

  • 1.5

    Are there additional comments, considerations or information you wish to share regarding your company size?

Your view on implementation and social design

  • 2.1

    I would define successful implementation of social design initiatives as; think about a personal definition based on your experience

  • 2.2

    Based on your view on social design implementation, how many of your concepts/propositions/projects would you say have been implemented/realised?
    Mark only one oval.

    • 0 projects

    • 2–3 projects

    • 4–5 projects

    • 5–10 projects

    • 10–20 projects

    • Other, elaborate below

  • 2.3

    Explain and elaborate; when do you consider a project as implemented? what are your indicators for implementation?

  • 2.4

    What is the average duration of the social design projects you have worked on?
    Mark only one oval.

    • 1–3 months

    • 4–6 months

    • 7–12 months

    • 13–24 months

    • Two–four years

    • More than five years

    • Other, elaborate below

  • 2.5

    Are there additional comments, considerations or information you wish to share regarding the lifespan of projects?

  • 2.6

    Based on previously conducted research, we have identified several barriers designers face regarding implementation. What are the main barriers you experience towards implementation of social design projects? (Select more than one if relevant)
    Tick all that apply.

    • Financial barriers

    • Contractual barriers

    • Collaboration barriers / Lack of ownership

    • Durational barriers

    • Bureaucratic barriers

    • Other, elaborate below

  • 2.7

    Which of these barriers has been the most challenging in your work? And why? Any relevant examples of projects? And what are other barriers we have not identified yet that you experience?

Commissioning forms and social design implementation

  • 3.1

    How much does your studio rely on subsidy for conceptualizing and realizing social design projects?
    Mark only one oval.

    • Fully rely

    • Partly rely

    • Do not rely at all

  • 3.2

    Explain and elaborate your answer above, explain how?

  • 3.3

    Which commissioning model does your studio mostly work in for social design projects?
    Mark only one oval.

    • Client commissions us for a social design project

    • We initiate and fund ourselves a social design project

    • We initiate a social design project and apply for funding

    • Another commissioning model, elaborate below

  • 3.4

    Can you explain why you work mostly in this model?

Social design implementation in relation to the designers’ organisational model

  • 4.1

    Does your business legal structure (question 1.2) influence your ability to implement your Social Design projects?
    Mark only one oval.

    • Yes

    • To a certain extent

    • Not at all

  • 4.2

    In what way does it influence? Explain and elaborate your answer above

  • 4.3

    Which organizational aspects on the designer's side enables the most continuity, realisation and implementation of social design projects and why? Ex. business structure, size, business model, etc.

  • 4.4

    Which organisational aspects on the partner's/clients's side enables the most continuity, realisation and implementation of social design projects and why? Ex. business structure, size, policy, etc.

  • 4.5

    Are there any organisational/business structures that you find important to explore in relation to social design? Name them and explain why.

Conclusions and final notes

  • 5.1

    What would you advise designers and their partners who are working on implementation of their social design projects in the designated context?

  • 5.2

    Do you have a project you have worked on that was highly successful in implementation? What was this project and what attributed to the success?

  • 5.3

    Is there anything else you would like to add or share regarding the implementation?

Last edited: 27/03/2023